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Knee OA

[39] Review paper 

Female vs Male in OA

[4] Gender Differences Exist in Osteoarthritic Gait
McKean et al., 2007, Grade 1-3, 24M 15F (

decrease  - knee flexion ROM angle during stance
decrease  - hip internal rotation angles during stance and swing
similar      - ankle sagittal plane angles

[5] Knee Joint Biomechanics and Neuromuscular Control During Gait Before and After Total Knee Arthroplasty are Sex-specific
Astephen Wilson et al., 2015, Grade 3-4, 24M 28F (

decrease  - knee flexion ROM angle between late stance and mid-swing
decrease  - knee internal rotation angle at mid-stance
similar      - knee frontal plane angles

[6] Differences in Gait Patterns Pain Function and Quality of Life Between Males and Females with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Clinical Trial
Debi et al., 2009, Grade 1-4, 49M 85F (

decrease  - toe out angle during stance

[7] Gait Characteristics of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis
Kaufman et al., 2001, Grade 2, 47M 92F (

increase   - peak knee flexion angle during swing

[8] Sex Differences in Biomechanics Associated with Knee Osteoarthritis
Sims et al., 2009, Grade 1-4, 26M 30F (

similar      - knee flexion ROM angle

Sex-Specific Gait Patterns of Older Adults with Knee Osteoarthritis Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging
Ko et al., 2011 (

no kinematic

Female vs Male in Healthy

[28] Gender Differences in Walking and Running on Level and Inclined Surfaces
Chumanov et al., 2008, 17M 17F, Age 22.0 +- 4.8 M 24.9 +- 4.8 F (

increase   - peak knee flexion during stance
increase   - peak hip adduction during stance
increase   - hip adduction excursion during stance
increase   - peak hip internal rotation during stance
increase   - lateral pelvic tilt excursion (frontal)
similar      - peak hip flexion during stance

[29] Differences in Normal and Perturbed Walking Kinematics between Male and Female Athletes
Hurd et al., 2004, 10M 10F, Age 21.3 +- 8.8 M 20.9 +- 8.4 F (

increase  - knee and hip excursions in frontal and transverse planes
similar     - knee adduction, knee flexion, hip adduction, hip flexion, hip internal rotation at initial contact
similar     - speed

[30] Gender Differences in Three Dimensional Gait Analysis Data from 98 Healthy Korean Adults
Cho et al., 2004, 47M 51F, Age 22.9 +- 4.9 M 23.5 +- 2.7 F (

increase  - knee abduction/valgus throughout the gait cycle
increase  - hip flexion throughout the gait cycle
increase  - pelvis frontal at maximum and minimum peak
increase  - pelvis sagittal throughout the gait cycle
similar     - ankle sagittal, knee sagittal, hip frontal, hip transverse, pelvis transverse
slower     - speed, = if normalized with leg length

[31] Gender Differences in Pelvic Motions and Center of Mass Displacement During Walking Stereotypes Quantified
Smith et al., 2002, Young 30M 30F, Age 22-40 30.3 +- 6.3 M 29.0 +- 5.9 F, Older 30M 30F, Age 65-83 71.6 +- 4.9 M 72.2 +- 4.7 F (

increase  - pelvic obliquity range
same      - speed 

[32] Gender Differences Exist in the Hip Joint Moments of Healthy Older Walkers
Boyer et al., 2008, 21M 21F, Age 50-79 61.1 +- 1.0 M 62.0 +- 1.0 F (

increase  - ankle flexion at heel-strike and toe-off (-)
decrease - knee flexion at mid-stance (+)
increase  - peak hip adduction
increase  - hip felxion at toe-off (-)
similar     - speed

[33] Sex-Specific Differences in Gait Patterns of Healthy Older Adults: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging
Ko et al., 2011, 174M 162F, Age 50-96 (

increase  - ankle sagittal ROM
increase  - hip frontal ROM
decrease - hip sagittal ROM
similar     - ankle frontal ROM, knee frontal ROM, knee sagittal ROM
similar     - speed

[44] Gender Differences in Lower Extremity Gait Biomechanics During Walking Using an Unstable Shoe
Nigg et al., 2010, 17M 17F, Age 42.4 +- 13.6 M 48.1 +- 12.6 F (

increase  - knee abduction angles throughout the entire stance phase
decrease - knee external rotation at heel-strike
decrease - knee flexion from mid-stance to toe-off 
decrease - maximum peak knee flexion at about 70% of stance phase
increase  - hip adduction angles throughout the entire stance phase
similar     - ankle frontal, transverse, and sagittal, hip sagittal and transverse angles

[48] Gender Differences in Joint Biomechanics During Walking Normative Study in Young Adults
Kerrigan et al., 1998, 50M 49F, Age 20-40  (

decrease - knee extention before initial contact
increase  - peak hip flexion
similar     - peak hip extension, knee flexion loading response, knee extension terminal stance, peak knee flexion, ankle plantar flexion loading response, ankle dorsiflexion mid stance, peak ankle plantar flexion, peak ankle dorsiflexion swing
same       - speed

OA vs Normal

===== Gender-specific =====

[4] Gender Differences Exist in Osteoarthritic Gait
McKean et al., 2007, Grade 1-3, 42C (18M 24F) 39Mo (24M 15F)  (

decrease - knee flexion ROM during stance (Female only)
decrease - knee flexion throughout the entire gait cycle
increase  - hip internal rotation during stance and swing
decrease - ankle plantar flexion at toe-off

[35] Comparison of Hip and Knee Muscle Moments in Subjects with and without Knee Pain
Manetta et al., 2002, Male only1010OA (

decrease - knee flexion ROM during stance

[36] Sex-Specific Gait Patterns of Older Adults with Knee Osteoarthritis: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging
Ko et al., 2011, 208C (115M 93F) 60OA (29M 31F) (

increase  - hip frontal and sagittal ROM (Female only)
similar     - knee frontal and sagittal ROM

[37] Kinetic and Kinematic Characteristics of Gait in Patients with Medial Knee Arthrosis
Gök et al, 2002, Female only1313OA (Me, Stage 0.5-1) (

decrease - maximum peak knee flexion during stance phase and swing phase
increase  - maximum peak knee varus in stance phase, knee valgus in swing phase

[38] Hip and Knee Joint Rotations Differ Between Patients with Medial and Lateral Knee Osteoarthritis: Gait Analysis of 30 Patients and 15 Controls
Weidow et al., 2006, Female only, 15C 30OA (15Me 15La) (

similar      - knee internal rotation at midstance between C and Me/La

===== Mixed-gender =====

[19] The Influence of Walking Speed on Gait Parameters in Healthy People and In Patients with Osteoarthritis
Bejek et al., 2006, Mixed-gender, 2020S (

decrease  - knee and hip sagittal ROM

[20] Performance of Subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis During Walking: Differential Parameters
Esrafilian et al., 2013, Unknown gender, 1515OA (KL2) (

decrease - knee flexion-extension ROM, knee abduction-adduction ROM
similar     - knee internal-external ROM, ankle, hip, and pelvis ROM in all planes

[21] Gait Knee Kinematic Alterations in Medial Osteoarthritis: Three Dimensional Assessment
Bytyqi et al., 2014, Mixed-gender, 12C 30OA (Me) (

decrease - knee flexion ROM
decrease - knee internal-external rotation ROM
similar     - knee adduction-abduction ROM

[22] Increased Knee Joint Loads During Walking Are Present in Subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis
Baliunas et al., 2002, Mixed-gender, 31C 31OA (KL1-4)(

decrease  - Knee sagittal ROM, minimum knee flexion
simialr      - knee flexion angle at midstance, terminal extension, maximum

[23] Gait Patterns During Different Walking Conditions in Older Adults with and without Knee Osteoarthritis—Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging
Ko et al., 2011, Mixed-gender, 112C 41OA (

decrease - knee ROM

[24] Biomechanical Changes at the Hip Knee and Ankle Joints During Gait Are Associated with Knee Osteoarthritis Severity
Astephen et al., 2008, Mixed-gender, 60C 60Mo 60S (;jsessionid=AD61FB317773ABB006DA8B64231DF15C.f03t01)

decrease  -  ankle, knee, and hip sagittal ROM

[25] Age-Related Changes in Strength Joint Laxity and Walking Patterns Are They Related to Knee Osteoarthritis?
Rudolph et al., 2007, Mixed-gender, 44C (15Y 15M 15O) 15OA (

decrease  - knee flexion excursion with all 3 control groups
similar      - among the control groups

[26] Control of Frontal Plane Knee Laxity during Gait in Patients with Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis
Lewek et al., 2004, Mixed-gender, 1212OA (

decrease  - knee flexion excursion during stance phase

[27] Stride-to-Stride Variability of Knee Motion in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis
Lewek et al., 2006, Mixed-gender, 1515OA (

decrease  - knee flexion excursion during weight acceptance

[28] Influences on Knee Movement Strategies During Walking in Persons with Medial Knee Osteoarthritis
Schmitt & Rudolph, 2007, Mixed-gender, 26C 28OA (Me) (

decrease - knee flexion excursion, knee extension excursion
increase  - knee frontal at initial contact, peak knee frontal
similar     - knee adduction excursion

[29] Alterations in Lower Extremity Movement and Muscle Activation Patterns in Individuals with Knee Osteoarthritis
Childs et al., 2004, Mixed-gender, 24C 24OA (

decrease - knee sagittal excursion from heelstrike and peak flexion before midstance (i.e. during loading)
increase  - knee flexion at initial contact

[55] Association Between in vivo Knee Kinematics During Gait and the Severity of Knee Osteoarthritis
Nagano et al., 2012, Unknown gender, 13C 45OA (4KL1 10KL2 17KL3 14KL4) (

decrease - knee abduction at 50% stance phase
decrease - knee flexion at the time of foot contact for S and Mo
decrease - knee flexion excursion between foot contact and 50% of stance phase for S
decrease - knee rotation excursion between foot contact and 50% of stance phase for early OA 

[56] Biomechanical Features of Gait Waveform Data Associated with Knee Osteoarthritis: An Application of Principal Component Analysis
Deluzio & Astephen, 2007, Unknown gender, 63C 50S (

decrease  - knee flexion ROM (PC2)


Knee Biomechanics of Moderate OA Patients Measured During Gait at a Self-Selected and Fast Walking Speed
Landry et al., 2007, Unknown gender, 43C 41MiMo (

similar      - knee flexion angles using PCA

[30] Effects of Severity of Degeneration on Gait Patterns in Patients with Medial Knee Osteoarthritis
Huang et al., 2008, Mixed-gender, 1515Mi 15S (

similar      - peak ankle, knee, and hip transverse plane angles
decrease  - peak knee frontal and sagittal angles

[31] Gait Differs Between Unilateral and Bilateral Knee Osteoarthritis
Creaby et al., 2012, Mixed-gender, 31C 91OA (Me)(

decrease  - peak knee flexion, average toe-out
increase   - average knee varus-valgus, average trunk lean

[32] A Biomechanical Analysis of Trunk and Pelvis Motion During Gait in Subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis Compared to Control Subjects
Linley et al., 2010, Mixed-gender, 40C 40OA (

similar      - pelvic tilt, thoracic tilt-lab, thoracic tilt-pelvis

[33] Secondary Gait Changes in Patients with Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis: Increased Load at the Ankle, Knee, and Hip During Walking
Mündermann et al., 2005, Mixed-gender, 42C 42OA (19 KL1-2, 23 KL3-4) (

decrease  - knee flexion at heel strike
similar      - other sagittal plane angles at the ankle, knee, and hip

[34] Individuals with Severe Knee Osteoarthritis (OA) Exhibit Altered Proximal Walking Mechanics Compared with Individuals with Less Severe OA and those without Knee Pain
Hunt et al., 2010, Mixed-gender, 20C 75OA (25KL2 25KL3 25KL4)(

decrease - peak hip adduction
increase  - ipsilateral trunk lean

[40] Frontal-Plane Gait Mechanics in People With Medial Knee Osteoarthritis Are Different From Those in People With Lateral Knee Osteoarthritis
Butler et al., 2011, Unknown gender, 15C 30OA (15Me 15La) (

similar      - knee adduction excursion as compared to control

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